Saturday, December 7, 2019

Creative Story Confused Letmein Essay Example For Students

Creative Story: Confused Letmein Essay Creative Story: Confused LetmeinDonald Christensen pr #7Well it all started out like this, It was a typical day in band, marchingpractice. We were all outside lined up getting ready to march. As I waschatting with Bob, I over heard Mr. Letmein yell to Bob Get in line Donny. Hesaid it like Bob had killed someone. Bob suddenly looked up, and strangely enough, he was already in line. Aswe both looked at each other in wonder, Mr. Letmein commanded Band at a ready.Next thing I knew Mr. Letmein was yelling at Bob telling him to stand ata ready, and to be quiet, he was so mad at him it seemed like he was a volcano. We started to march, and Bob looked over at me and said, Was I talking?Nope I said back quickly, so we would not be noticed talking. After marching, in Spanish class, Bob asked me again if he was talking,and again I said no. We discussed this for a while and found no reason for Mr. Letmein to yell at him at all. That is just too strange, the only thing wecould think of is he thought Matt Card was Bob, because Matt was standing infront of Bob. Mr. Letmein must be getting old.

Saturday, November 30, 2019

The Caucasian Chalk Circle Questions by Nicole Essay Example For Students

The Caucasian Chalk Circle Questions by Nicole Essay How does the language of the play differ from the language of scene 1? First of all the Scene 2 uses narrative language and speaking in a third person. This is used through out the performance by a character called the singer and Grusha/Simon. Even though the singer is actually given a character name he does not exist throughout the play other than narrating. The narrator first says once upon a time which shows this is a story being told in a past tense. The narrator sets the scene for the Governor and his wife His name was Georgi Abashvilli. The scene is then describing the revolution, which is taking place at this time, referring to deaths as a time of bloodshed. For that reason alone I feel like the beginning of the play starts off with a more modern language so theres a clear contrast between the different time periods and its easier to distinguish them. We will write a custom essay on The Caucasian Chalk Circle Questions by Nicole specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now * What is Nukha like? Nukha is a village in the Caucasus Mountains, which was ruled by the Governor Georgi Abashvilli, who did not rule it very well seeing how much he had purposely ignored the poor beggars and petitioners asking him for help. Nukha appears to be a poor village (apart from the Governors palace) this is shown by the miserable slum houses who are filled with poor and unfortunate people which do not have the money to live in the right accommodations. * What do you learn about the citys Governor, Georgi Abashvili his family and his style of leadership? What are his main concerns? Throughout Scene 2 we begin to learn more about the Governors family and the Governor himself. Georgi Abashvilli, displays absolutely no worry or care for his son and his wife in his very short appearance in the play as he hardly speaks a single line in Scene 2, which indicates his utter self-involvement. He has no interest in what does not concern him, which is verified when he entirely ignores the begging protestors outside his palace. Georgi is also described as showing lack of curiosity when the fat prince questions the war, this complete disrespect for the soldiers and the people of his city, proves his arrogance, which is in fact similar to his wifes. Natella Abashvilli proves her enormous arrogance and self-involvement just like her husband who has been murdered. Although her sons life is in danger her main attention remains exclusively on her wardrobe and the haste to save the dresses, which concludes in to her carrying the dresses out to the carriage rather than her son. Ins tead she leaves the son in the care of her servants, concerned only with her safety and appearance. These actions are presented to and therefore believed by the audience to be typical of upper-class mothers. * Does the scene involving the two doctors develop your understanding of the Governor? I feel like it helped me to understand how much power and authority he had in the town of Nukha. Georgi possessed his own doctors who were right at his service taking care of his only child better than he was ever able to. It also made me realise that he did not only had doctors, he had everyone wrapped around his little finger and of course his wife took advantage of that. The Governor and his wife were both arrogant and preferred to have the doctors at their service rather than helping all the poor, homeless people out on the streets. * Describe the meeting between Grusha and Simon. Why do they speak to each other in the third person? .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 , .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .postImageUrl , .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 , .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3:hover , .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3:visited , .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3:active { border:0!important; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3:active , .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3 .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u4ba2960b31dcec8c861e7c86989d81f3:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Sup Natl in macbeth1 EssayGrusha seems to be very shy and raised to believe shes not as significant as the other characters like Natella because of her social status. This is why she handles herself very proper because that is the way shes used to being. Shes not used to having any attention on her therefore when Simon flirts with her indirectly (by the use of the third person) she answers back with the use of the third person as of her shy personality. However additionally even though Simon has more confidence, his romantic interest in Grusha brings out the fearful side in him, which causes him to talk in the third person. * Why is the Governor suspicious of Prince Kazbeki? How are his suspicions justified? The relationship between the Prince Kazbeki and the Governor is foreshadowed by the Governors comment, in which he states his surprise on being greeted by his own brother. The way Prince Kazbeki greets his brother is so unusual to the Governor that he remarks on it, But did you hear Brother Kazbeki wish me a happy Easter? This indicates the suspicion on the reason why Governor was greeted him the way he did which was obviously not their usual greeting. Turns out his suspicions were right after his own brother has killed him. * Why must Simon leave? What is Grushas reaction to his departure? What promises are made? The purpose of Simon leaving is to go and protect the Governors wife from the riots seeing as Natella being an upper class deserves more protection than anyone else in the palace. Nevertheless before Simon sets off and after his attempt to flirt with Grusha he finally has the courage to propose to her and give her a silver cross, which is the sign of an engagement. I believe that she has only accepted the proposal because she wants to belong to someone and feel loved which she has not in a very long time, this is why she promises Simon that no matter what happens she will wait for him and she must fulfill her objective. * How does the Governors wife come to leave the child behind? Through Scene 1 we can see the awful relationship between the Governors wife and her son Michael. She seems to only carry the child with her only because the child is hers although her actions do not express that. Georgi of course, builds only for his little Michael! Never for me Natella is in fact shown to be jealous of her own son getting more attention from her husband than her, the cause of this might be she is craving for his love and attention however that statement raises a very important question as to what is the point of having a child if you dont surround it with eternal love? This again is shown when as soon as Natella sees the fire she rushes off and leaves the child with people who do not care for it at all. * Why does Grusha take the child? What does the singer mean by terrible temptation to do good? Does anyone support Grusha in her actions? I believe Grusha chooses to take the tiny isolated child with her seeing as no one else seemed to care for it. Even his own mother Natella had left him behind after announcing there was a fire visible as at last she noticed the fire-reddened sky. Everyone else seem to believe Michael has caught the plague and take no notice of it, but just because Grusha is insignificant to them they do not want her to take him with her Keep your hands off him. She as a maid is alone and unimportant to the res t of the characters so for that reason alone shes able to empathise with Michael, as she knows what it feels like to be thought of as a burden. By terrible temptations to do good the singer means Grusha is tempted to take Michael with her as deep down in her heart she knows its the right thing to do but also there may be concerns as to her not having enough money to actually look after the child and provide him with the right accommodations.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Teaching English Language Learners

Teaching English Language Learners Teaching English to English language Learners (ELL) can be a very challenging task especially when dealing with a diversified society. However, teachers are often required to be willing to learn and develop new strategies that can help such students to succeed in the classroom. In addition, it is important to implement these strategies in order to motivate students from non-English speaking countries learn the English language.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Teaching English Language Learners specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is a necessary move as students who are new to the English language can feel unsuccessful, frustrated and demoralized if there is no attempt to motivate them. According to Miller and Endo (2004), the major challenges faced by ELS students emanate from cultural and linguistic problems. This is contrary to a widely held assumption that English language teachers are the problem. However, there is need for English teachers to determine the root cause of these problems and devise appropriate strategies to assist students. As an ESL teacher, I often look forward to ensuring that my students feel comfortable in the classroom and I am also required to learn new strategies to realize this goal. The paper explores the weaknesses and strengths often realized while exploring various challenges experienced while teaching a multicultural student population and how these challenges can be overcome based on my new learning. As a Bengali, Hispanic, and Arabic teacher, it is not an easy task teaching the English language. Therefore, new strategies such as questioning the students have to be adopted. Based on the practicum plan information, Socratic questioning is a good strategy that can enhance the reading, pronunciation, and the understanding capabilities of ESL students. In his research findings, Van Gorder (2003) has noted that questioning helps students to move forward, understand meaning and new vocabulary. Thereafter students are able to read fluently. In addition, questions assist students to understand new vocabularies, solve language problems and also assist them to move forward in learning the language (Van Gorder, 2003). This is useful in promoting students’ understanding, thereby enabling them to make meaning out of different texts. In addition, Socratic questioning activates students’ prior knowledge achieved through demonstration of learning.  Learning new vocabulary and writing paragraphs also enables ELL and ESL students to improve their proficiency in the English language. However, this strategy is challenged by what Pellino (2007) refers to as ‘language load’. While an English teacher lists English words or asks students to write them down, on the other hand, an English leaner is faced with language load. Language load means the â€Å"number of unfamiliar words encountered as an English learner reads a text or list ens to teacher or peer academic talk† (Pellino, 2007).Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To counter this challenge, the teacher should break down sentences into comprehensible sections. In addition, he/she should explain the text material or write down sentences that of the same level as students’ level of understanding. Moreover, presentation of academic vocabulary can be carried out at the beginning of each lesson. Information from personal relationships can be used to develop activities and lessons that can assist students to improve their learning abilities. Engaging ESL and ELL students in oral reading is important as it improves their reading abilities in addition to enabling them master words pronunciation. This shows that merely showing students how to use vocabularies learned is not adequate. Oral reading according to Harris, Turbill, Fitzsimmons and McKe nzie (2003), improves the confidence levels of students, develops vocabulary, and pronunciation of words. Reading is important as it not only improves the reading abilities of a student but also improves their prowess in English language. However, ESL students should not be exposed to limited reading materials. Instead, they have to be exposed to different reading materials. According to Harris, Turbill, Fitzsimmons and McKenzie (2006), by exposing children to different reading materials and texts, their prior knowledge is activated, thereby improving their ability to derive meaning. Some of the reading materials and resources as suggested by Scott (2010) include magazines, books, use of tapes with stories and songs, poems, dual language textbooks, story props, tourist brochures, postcards, newspapers, and catalogues among others. To determine the reading and writing abilities of students, students should be encouraged to take English tests more often. In addition, students should b e encouraged to use their native language more often because according to Miller and Endo (2004), â€Å"students who continue to speak their native language have greater success in learning English† (p. 790).  Based on my new learning, one major challenge often encountered by ESL students is language shock as they try to adjust to a new culture in their quest to learn the English language. Assuming that students have been integrated into a community where every student speaks English fluently, language load and shock could prove to be a challenge. Therefore, I must be prepared to assist the students to adjust and avoid mockery by the other English speaking students. This particular challenge can be handled by motivating the students, evaluating the teaching approaches and strategies used so as to make the students more confident (Miller Endo, 2004). In addition, the efforts of the students should not be limited to the use of certain strategies and approaches. Moreover, stu dents can be introduced to literacy centers which comprise of small groups that allow students improve their reading abilities. Various reading strategies such as shared-reading, guided-reading, small group shared-reading and modeled reading may be used (Harris et al., 2003).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Teaching English Language Learners specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More These strategies enable the teacher to model and guide children, thereby making them English independent readers. Words or English sentence structures that meets the ESL students learning abilities could be adopted to assist students improve their learning, reading, and pronunciation abilities rather than curtailing their success in the English language classroom (Miller Endo, 2004). According to Vaughn (2010), a major challenge faced by teachers teaching multicultural students is determining the students’ skills and knowledge in first la nguage as well as understanding the level of performance in the student’s second language. This can be addressed through assessments, vocabulary and language tests (New Teacher Center, 2005). In addition, authentic and metacognition maybe applied. In other words, students should not be left to memorize information but be encouraged to understand meaning and be tested to determine their learning abilities and capabilities. Moreover, building personal relationships with the parents can assist in gaining a positive experience and gain trust and improve students’ confidence. One of the main resources that can be used to further my professional development is welcoming student’s parents into the classroom (Miller Endo, 2004). This would create a closer relationship that is ideal for improving the students learning abilities. Another resource is investing in reading with a view to exploring the currently available ESL and ELL teaching approaches and strategies. In ad dition, going back to school could be an appropriate resource as it increases the skills and the knowledge on how to appropriately and effectively instruct ELLs (Vaughn, 2010).  In addition, learning the native language of my students would be important as it enhances better communication skills between me and the students (Goldenberg, 2008). By enhancing academic achievement, it becomes easier for English teachers to create an English language-rich classroom. Moreover, by recognizing the sameness and diversity of the students, teachers are better able to integrate the existing curriculum with multicultural literature to boost the students’ language learning capabilities. Proper pronunciation of students’ names and gathering background information such as the parents level of education, the language they speak back at home, the time they come to the U.S, and whether their parents speak English, would be important.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More To sum it up, teachers are faced with numerous challenges when teaching a multicultural student population. Some of these challenges include language shock, determining the performance of second language, understanding the level of second language, and determining the best teaching approaches for each student. Some of the methods useful with ESLs students include Socratic questioning, demonstration on language, oral reading, writing essays, learning new English words, and shared learning. The aforementioned challenges can be reduced by understanding each students background, creating personal relationships, and metacognition and authentic assessments. Oral reading improves students’ confidence levels, develops vocabulary, and pronunciation abilities. ESL children should have special attention from the teachers to aid boost their learning reading abilities which can be achieved through the use of literacy centers. Reference List Goldenberg, C. (2008). Teaching English language learners: What the research does- and does not- say. American Educator, 8-43. Harris, P., Turbill, J., Fitzsimmons, P., McKenzie, B. (2006). Reading in the primary year (2 nd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic: Cengage Learning. Harris, P., Turbill, J., Fitzsimmons, P., McKenzie, B. (2003). Writing in the primary years. Melbourne, Australia: Social Science Press. Miller, C M., Endo, H. (2004). Understanding and meeting the needs of ESL students. PHI Delta Kappan, 786-791. New Teacher Center. (2005). Six key strategies for teachers of English-Language learners. Web. Pellino, K. (2007). Effective strategies for teaching English Language learners. Web. Scot, C. (2010). The challenges of teaching ESL students in international schools. Web. Van Gorder, B. L. (2003). When less is more: Questioning the text as a strategy for reading success. Voices from the Middle, 11(1), 35-37. Vaughn, S. (2010). Response to intervention in reading for English language learners. Texas: University of Texas and Alba Ortiz.

Friday, November 22, 2019

Allowing Guns on Campus Will Prevent Shootings, Rape

A graduate student leaving an evening class walks along the poorly lit sidewalk to the parking lot—it is a long, cold walk in the pitch-black night, and the student grows wary as shadows begin lurking in the distance. Suddenly, someone jumps out in front of the student, immediately threatening her with force. Before the student can react, she is raped and robbed. This is a very scary scenario, and one that happens on the SCSU campus every year. It seems like every week we get an e-mail citing another attack on students somewhere on or near campus. However, all of these attacks could be prevented if we allow students to carry guns as a means of self-defense. Although safety is my biggest concern, there are other arguments that point to this solution as well. First, it is our Second Amendment right to bear arms. Although debates have gone on about how it should be interpreted, I believe it means that if law abiding, trained and eligible citizens would like to carry a gun with them in self-defense, they should be able to. Right now, that does not include campus. â€Å"The law, as it stands now, does not prohibit carry on campus,† said Terence McCloskey, SCSU campus leader for Students for Concealed Carry on Campus (SCCC). â€Å"It allows universities to establish rules restricting carry on campus by students and staff. † According to the March 2007 Safety and Security bulletin in section 2. 1, â€Å"Alcoholic beverages, non-regulated drugs, explosives, guns and ammunition are not permitted on SCSU property. † This rule, I believe, is a violation of my Second Amendment rights. The second reason guns should be allowed is because it will give students, such as the one in the scenario, a sense of security and comfort when they are in a normally uncomfortable situation or area. The opposition would say that although the person with the gun is comfortable, it makes others around that person uncomfortable or afraid to speak up in class. Well, let me ask you this: How often do you feel uncomfortable or scared about someone near you having a gun when you go to a movie theater? Probably not too often. However, McCloskey said that 1 percent of Minnesotans have a permit to carry guns. â€Å"That means that every time they go to a movie theater with around 200 people inside, they are sitting with two people that are carrying a gun,† McCloskey said. There are people all around us that have guns, and it seems to be handled just fine. After all, the 1 percent that do carry guns have to meet certain requirements—guns are not handed out to just anyone. Minnesota law requires everyone to have a permit in order to own a handgun, and to obtain one you must be 21 years of age, be a U. S.  citizen, have training in the safe use of a pistol, not be a felon, not have a domestic violence offense in the last 10 years, not be a person convicted of stalking, as well as many other restrictions. You can find these laws on the State of Minnesota Web site. The final reason that guns should be allowed to be carried by students who obtain a permit is that it could prevent a tragic shooting like the one at Virginia Tech a couple of years ago. â€Å"Our best and our brightest are in an unprotected environment and are essentially being led to the slaughter,† said Keith Moum in an article in the Missourian. â€Å"It’s not as graphic as that, but it clearly shows that there is an element out there that has targeted college students. † If guns had been allowed on that campus, that tragedy may have been least minimized. So, in order to make the SCSU campus and other campuses nationwide a safe, comfortable environment for everyone, we need to allow the ability to carry a gun on campus. Not only will it make a student carrying a gun feel safe, it can prevent a tragic shooting, a robbery, or a rape. It is our right. Let us exercise it.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

The Alarming Increase of Children Diagnosed with Autism Essay

The Alarming Increase of Children Diagnosed with Autism - Essay Example What is autism? Recognized a half century ago (Hanchette), Autism is a developmental disorder that has been deemed very severe and begins anytime between the birth of the child and 2 Â ½ years of age. These children are normal in appearance, but they will engage in various disturbing behaviors that are obviously different than the behaviors of normal children. There are also varying degrees of autism. Those who have less severe cases may be diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or Asperger’s Syndrome in which the child may have normal speech, but display some social and behavioral problems that are associated with autism (unknown, autism.com/autism). But believe it or not, it was once believed that autism was to be accepted as is because it was thought that nothing could be done about it. But now there have been a variety of treatment methods developed which have proven to be very helpful in leading to great improvement. Yet there is also the unfortunate fact that some treatments may have little or no effect at all on the autistic child (unknown, autism.com/autism). So why was autism thought to be hopeless? Well, for many years autism was thought to be a very rare occurrence. The average number of children born with autism was 5 out of every 10,000 live births (unknown, autism.com/autism). But since the 1990’s, there has been a very noticeable rise in the number of children developing autism. This rise is telling us that there is an average of 60 children out of 10,000 born with autism in which boys outnumber the girls four to one. As of 2007, the Centers for Disease Control reported that 1 in 150 children are diagnosed with autism (unknown, autism.com/autism). To think that in 1992 there were only 2,800 kids with autism in the entire state of California. When 2002 rolled around, that number had increased to 20,400 and as of 2004, the number of autistic children in California reached a staggering 24,000. That is a 440% increase between the years 1994 and 2004. New York is up 200% in the last decade and Pennsylvania has reached a 900% incr ease (Hanchette). It is very obvious with the latest statistics that autism is undergoing a significant rise, which makes it very important that the behavioral and physical signs are recognized as early as possible to ensure the appropriate treatment is administered. It is said that the sooner the child is treated, the better the outcome. With increased awareness of the signs and treatment being administered early, there are autistic children attending regular classrooms and some can live somewhat independently in a community setting. However, autistic people do not lose the impairment that comes along with autism that affects their ability to communicate and socialize successfully. This aspect, unfortunately, continues to haunt them for the duration of their lives. Behavioral signs of autism There are various behavioral signs associated with autism. These signs include: repetitive behaviors, lack of speech, withdrawal from parents or siblings, very little or no social interaction (Hanchette). If the child displays no big smiles or other expressions of joy by six months old, then that is a huge red flag. Another sign is if they do not share facial expressions, sounds or smiles, or if the child has not spoken by 16 months or has used multiple worded phrases with meaning by 24 months, those could all be

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Implementing Strategy & Managing Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Implementing Strategy & Managing Change - Essay Example The crux of the solution is to facilitate a sense of participation to all the stakeholders associated with the issue to solicit maximum cooperation and compliance. This report concerns the implementation of the proposal regarding setting the standard time in which a fire engine arrives at a location at 12 minutes. This proposal though being placed as an inalienable part of the current RMP has come across stiff resistance from the trade unions, government officials and the public. A successful implementation of this proposal necessitates the appraisal and understanding of the external environment in which the organization operates and identifying the salient cultural, political and technical constraints responsible for augmenting such resistance for this proposal (Greener & Hughes, 2006). It was found that extending a sense of ownership and participation to the stakeholders associated with and impacted by the issue would certainly go a long way in assuring a successful implementation of this proposal (Beitler, 2006). As per the existing best practices corroborated three years ago, a fire engine is expected to arrive at 65 percent of the fire incidents within 5 minutes and at 90 percent of the locations in 8 minutes (London Safety Plan, 2008/2011). As per the available data, in the last three years, the fire engines failed to reach at 65 percent of the incidents within 5 minutes (London Safety Plan, 2008/2011). Hence, the attendance standards desperately need to be revised. Going by the current realities, there will also be instances where the fire engines will take more time then the one enshrined in the existing best practices, to arrive at a location. Hence, the setting the maximum time to 12 minutes is pragmatic and realistic. There exists a plethora of cultural factors causing resistance to the proposal under consideration. In the context of the fire and rescue services, London always commanded a peculiar background and attitude (Pepys, 1995).

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Detailing Product Life Cycles Essay Example for Free

Detailing Product Life Cycles Essay We may conclude that ISO 14001 has significant and direct profit and wealth creation potentials. Companies need effective management accounting systems to monitor all costs and benefits that accrue from the ISO 14001 process. Companies also need to market the consumer and social benefits of ISO 14001 effectively to targeted market segments for which environmental management matters. ISO 14001 and Seasonal Business Union Carbide’s Indian pesticides business, which caused the toxic cloud in Bhopal, was a highly seasonal business, with uncertainties regarding pest outbreaks and cropping patterns. The accident occurred in December, some 100 days after the peak demand for pesticides in that sub-tropical climate, with monsoon-dependant crop acreages. The worldwide tourism business is another example of high seasonal fluctuations in demand. Cyclical downturns are notorious for taking place when full complements of expert staff are not available, as outside normal working hours. Any operation with wide differences between times of peak demand and off-peak times, will inevitably respond by having fewer people available for watch and ward duties, at some times. Environmental Management Systems can never afford to slacken their vigilance, as all dangers and risks are not necessarily related with peak loads. ISO 14001 offers a reliable structure within which systems can operate to adequate standards even during times of low demand. The documentation support of ISO 14001 can prove to be invaluable in containing the emergent implications of any incident. The tourism industry benefits from ISO 14001, not only because of the off-season protection, but simultaneously because of the demand for eco-tourism and out of sustainability concerns for this large service sector. ISO 14001 is especially useful for any enterprise with high seasonality of demand. It helps organizations establish infrastructure that can maintain emergency response and environmental management capabilities at optimal costs during the lean seasons. It also helps companies to plan for peak demand in terms of environmental loads. These advantages are over and above the other benefits of the system that apply to all registrants. ISO 14001 and Building Projects The project nature of civil construction, and its high involvement with third party contractors, places a special challenge for ISO 14001. The growing demand for ‘green buildings. ’ is a special opportunity for the system. ISO is very well suited for the construction industry, and can help it meet new demands for sustainability. Much of the most lasting harm to the environment from modern industry arises from the materials, processes and designs of buildings and related civil structures. Asbestos abatement has been the focus of many environmental management standards of the building industry during the recent past. Asbestos exposure has occurred 3-4 decades earlier. This is a powerful reminder of the need for LCA in civil construction. The entire ISO 14001 system has a host of similar benefits for all stakeholders in the building industry. Architecture and ISO 14001 share a common emphasis on the design phase of projects, to avoid problems arising out of implementation. Hence, professionals in the construction business are especially amenable to the spirit of ISO 14001. The system has much to contribute by way of reducing material wastage in construction, and in reducing energy loads of actual use of buildings. ISO 14001 is eminently suited to meet the certification standards of the Green Building Council, and the specifications for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) status. ISO 14001 has additional benefits with respect to protecting investors from a legal point of view in real estate transactions. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), accompanies a number of state and local regulations that have major environmental implications. Any business in the construction or real estate business can benefit from ISO 14001, as they will have a sound system to choose projects with which they can be involved. They can also plan for full legal compliance as new laws take effect. ISO 14001 has powerful marketing potential for real estate developers. Investors and people on the market for buying homes would be inevitably attracted to projects that have sound environmental management systems in place. Buildings, neighborhoods and cities that make minimal imprints on the environment, that have track records of continual improvement and that make invaluable savings in maintenance resources, will always appreciate and attract communities. ISO 14001 has the potential to become mandatory for new real estate projects, particularly for ones in places that are rich in natural resources. ISO 14001 and Equator Principles Banks that subscribed to the Equator Principles have often found themselves in difficult situations, having to assess the environmental impacts of projects that for which they consider financing. Conflicting views from various stakeholders can be difficult for lenders to reconcile, as many aspects of the matter require local expertise and technological appreciation. ISO 14001 offers a solution for such matters, since it calls for a transparent and systematic assessment of chosen aspects, with a structured audit and review process. The Equator Principles could extend towards fields of transnational endeavor other than funding, and ISO 14001 can be a reliable and universal bridge for assessment and continual evaluation. The next decades will see a spurt in funded development projects in large tracts of the world. There is enormous pressure for large projects designed to bring succor to rural and urban communities. Funding will be mostly across geographical boundaries as capital resources are centered with countries other than the ones with the physical features for development. Investors and sources of public funds everywhere will face questions about environmental management, as they peruse candidate projects from distant locations. ISO 14001 is a good solution in these circumstances, for it provides a neutral and universal format in which all developers and governments can plan to manage the environmental impacts of the new projects that they conceive. International bodies can respond to social activists who claim that most development projects cause environmental harm, by asking project owners to use the transparency and accountability of the ISO 14000 series. SME Experience with ISO 14001 The vast majority of enterprises in most countries belong to the small and medium categories. ISO 14001 cannot be the force that it should, unless the system proves to be valid, useful and feasible for such organizations. A superficial look at ISO 14001 could lead most observers to conclude that it is too involved and expensive for any but the largest of corporations to afford. However, the reality is that ISO 14001 lends itself to adoption by even small and medium enterprises. An on-line survey of small and medium enterprises (those with fewer than 100 employees) with ISO 14001, displays pleasantly surprising results (International Organization for Standardization, 2005). Pressures to comply with environmental regulations, demands from corporate customers that are higher up in the supply chain and lucrative opportunities in foreign markets, are the three most important stimulants for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to seek the business advantages of ISO 14001. Many SMEs lose out because they do not seek ISO 14001 certifications, either out of ignorance, or because of wrong impressions they hold of the resources required. There is a clear need to make the system’s benefits more widely known and more accurately appreciated. Many SME owners incorrectly believe that pollution is an exclusive preserve of large corporations! The significant negative contributions of SMEs to environmental management are often ignored, especially if units are scattered and relatively isolated. Many SMEs stay away from ISO 14001 as they are not aware of government and institutional support available for them to secure certification within their means. Some consultants confound the issue by outlying more paperwork and bureaucracy than is necessary for the sizes of some potential clients. SMEs also have the choice to build their EMSs on alternative systems that compete with ISO 14001. It would appear overall that ISO 14001 has a great deal of unused potential with respect to EMSs for SMEs. This is a marketing challenge for country organizations of the ISO body. SMEs can be very wasteful of material and energy, albeit on a relatively small scale. They may not be immediately aware of wastes they generate, but this has a cumulative effect that has to be addressed at some stage. Pest Control Operators and Applicators are classic examples of small enterprises that deal with highly toxic chemicals. The latter can affect wide areas and large communities. All SMEs everywhere can use ISO 14001 to fight competition from better resourced corporations, by using effective EMSs. The move to terminate enterprises that have no controls on the pollution they cause and the hazards inherent in their operations, is current already. Growth is a natural evolution even for SMEs. ISO 14001, apart from protecting business interests as described above, also has the power to afford rapid growth for SMEs. The Internet enables local companies to achieve global reach. ISO 14001 can help them match their new found logistical strengths with EMSs that work. Any SME with growth ambitions has to use ISO 14001 as essential infrastructure for its future plans. Summary of Benefits of Environmental Management Systems Environmental management standards help companies to build their transactions across territorial boundaries. It is likely to become a sort of pre-requisite for global corporations. Emerging economies must develop expertise in environmental management to fight non-tariff barriers to markets in advanced economies. It is an integral part of the branding process. Environmental management systems help companies and organizations respond to important concerns of their main stakeholders. It is therefore a matter of priority for most entities in the conventional world. Companies from all sectors of the economy have become aware of the pressing need to conserve precious natural resources (Case Studies, 2002). ISO 14001 has enabled companies such as Apple stay abreast of changing regulation on environmental matters. The company was able to eliminate lead from batteries, and later to substitute Nickel-Cadmium batteries in line with European Union directives. These are concrete examples of how ISO 14001 helps companies stay in business by conforming in time to new and higher environmental protection standards. Apple’s switch to lithium ion batteries is an example of how ISO 14001 can squeeze additional ingenuity out of the industrial sector. Progressive companies such as Apple Computers buy products and services from companies that demonstrate effective commitment to environmental conservation (Case Studies, 2002). Supply chain considerations make ISO 14001 essential for the suppliers of major corporations. The proponents of ISO 14001 started by show-casing the benefits of the discipline in terms of the ethics of environmental concerns. The world has moved on since then, and ISO 14001 is no longer an option chosen by those with surplus cash. ISO 14001 has become a vital visa that provides contemporary corporations with the rights to continue business in the 21st century. The days of firms that do not meet ISO 14001 standards, are numbered. Savings in energy bills provide financial succor to firms that invest in reducing power consumption. This is a good example of the meeting point between the financial and non-financial advantages of environmental management systems. ISO 14001 is voluntary and flexible. It does not enforce any external standards. Companies can tailor their individual EMSs to the nature of their enterprise, and to the levels of expertise they have achieved in environmental management. It is a stable framework for the conduct of modern business that will appeal to professionals, and it is an effective way of extracting new efficiencies out of matured business processes. What Is It? The International Standards Organization, with its impressive name, has given ISO 14000 impressive credentials. The success of the ISO 9000 series in promoting quality consciousness has created high expectations in terms of the 14000 series enjoying similar success on the environmental front. However, many people are still not aware of the precise nature and scope of ISO 14000. The ISO 14000 series started in 1991: the first standards were published in 1996. It is therefore less well known and understood than the 9000 series which have been used for longer. The ISO 14000 series helps organizations meet environmental issues (Hanson, A. J. not dated). It is a documentation system that sets out objectives with priorities, divides responsibilities amongst a team, and provides for independent audit. It is important to bear in mind that ISO 14000 is not a single system, but rather a series of international standards (Environmental Management Guide 2004). ISO 14001 helps organizations to implement EMS, to ensure conformance to standards, to ensure compliance with relevant regulation and to seek independent certification (Environmental Management Guide 2004). Any organization that uses ISO 14001 disciplines will be better equipped to deal with the challenges of environmental management. ISO 14001 is one unit of the ISO 14000 series. ISO 14000 is a voluntary system-business houses and organization have rights to decide on whether or not they would like to invest in it. It has a pervasive influence, and calls for serious commitment of time and money. The decision to use ISO 14000 is therefore strategic by nature. Though community and key customer pressures can often be motivating factors, some organizations opt for ISO certification out of genuine concern for the environment. ISO 14000 recognizes environmental conservation as an integral part of organizational process, on par with more traditional functions such as Finance, Personnel and so on. The system must integrate with the total company organization and structure, if it is to yield meaningful and lasting benefits. Most companies start their ISO 14000 experiences with the help of experienced consultants, but that does not preclude deployment of significant human resources from an organization’s own pool. ISO 14000 has three major sections: life cycle analysis, environmental performance evaluation and labeling (Hanson, A. J. not dated). ISO 14001 in the series is concerned with environmental management systems. Organizations should plan to deploy the full ISO 14000 series over time, though they may start with ISO 14001 for reasons of resource constraints, to obtain the benefits of focus, and to give time to their employees to adjust to the new way of working. The ISO 14000 series is a guide that almost every organization can adapt to its specific needs. The system is very flexible in terms of fitting in to various sets of circumstances. Companies that work for profit have used ISO 14000 more widely than social organizations and government bodies. Firms from diverse segments of industry and even the services have all used ISO 14000 with equally remarkable success. However, the ISO system is not a packaged solution by itself. It is up to each registrant to use the system to its advantage. ISO promotes a new culture of professionalism. The documentation and procedures that the system enjoins on its followers, enforces a systematic approach to issues. It also promotes transparency, and ensures that organizations can respond in uniform manner, with low dependence on individual whims. It is especially useful to deal with emergent situations, and in ones in which a large number of variables require simultaneous consideration. Employees of an ISO 14000 certified organization display new confidence about their responsibilities and can do a more complete job of conserving the environment. ISO 14001 is a new template for modern business. It acknowledges the ubiquitous role of the environment in our lives, and provides paths to sustainable compromises that technology and conventional issues can negotiate with our natural surroundings. The ISO 14000 series can give a new lease of life to a business that is under attack because of the hazards and toxicity that it entails. It can help a small business rival a large corporation in terms of professional standards. It can help organizations perform uniformly across geographical and cultural boundaries. ISO 14000 is truly the way of the 21st century. There are concrete profits to be earned from the ISO 14000 series. The system is relentless in searching for ways to reduce consumption per unit of output, and ways to reuse or recycle waste and by products. Certification brings access to new markets and strengthens a company’s competitive position. There are therefore classic business reasons for using the ISO 14000 system. Environmental Labeling and ISO 14000 Some manufacturers have used the absence of regulations to prepare labels with unsubstantiated ecological claims on labels (Hanson, A. J. not dated). Consumers who would like to support manufacturers of environmentally sound products are hampered by the proliferation of labels that make vague and even incorrect claims about environmental impacts. Environmental labeling under the ISO 14000 series, corrects this anomaly. This is an important reason for business houses to support ISO 14000. The world is on a move towards the regulation of labeling standards, and companies that do not follow ISO 14000 may soon find themselves excluded from key markets. Three levels of labeling standards are available for manufacturers who would like to use the ISO 14000 system for their products. Most consumers are accustomed to Type 1 Environmental Labels. The latter provide criteria against which each covered product is measured. Canada and Germany have adopted these standards. Type II labels will use uniform terms and definitions: standards and details will be available in due course. Type III labels seek to provide information along a set of pre-determined criteria. Such labels are already in use for some nutritional products. Environmental labeling predisposes companies to resort to Life Cycle Analysis. The number of products with environmentally sound labels has grown exponentially since the 1990s (Hanson, A. J. not dated). There were less than 25 such products in the United States in 1989. The number grew to 600 by 1990. It is now a business that exceeds $10 billion. The stage is set for economies in all countries to move over to products and services that can make valid claims about environmental management on their labels. The ISO 14000 deals with environmental management on the basis of the following main principles (Hanson, A. J. not dated): â€Å"Labeling should be accurate, verifiable, relevant and should be non-deceptive. †¢ The party that makes the label should make relevant information about the attributes available to purchasers †¢ Labeling should be based on comprehensive scientific methods that are reproducible †¢ Information on the process and methodologies should be available to all interested parties †¢ Labeling should incorporate where appropriate the life cycle of the product or service †¢ Administrative requirements should not make participation difficult †¢ Labels should not create unfair trade restrictions †¢ Labeling should not inhibit innovation that may improve environmental performance. †¢ Labeling criteria should be developed by consensus† Environment labeling programs are democratic in nature. Producers can decide to comply of their own volition. Any manufacturer can decide to use the system, regardless of nature, size and location. It therefore gives an opportunity for new industrial entities to seek competitive advantage against entrenched brands. The greater interests of consumers always have over-riding priority. There are four methods available for verification of claims made on environmental labels. These are: â€Å"Declaration of conformity: the manufacturer self-declares conformance †¢ Review of supporting documentation: the practitioner requires the applicant to provide documentary evidence of conformity †¢ Evaluation of conformity with manufacturing phase requirements: where the production phase is evaluated †¢ Product testing: samples of the product are tested (Hanson, A. J. not dated). Companies have to establish monitoring systems to ensure on-going compliance once their label claims have been verified. Environmental labeling is an important development in terms of improving environmental accountability of modern business. It is an integral part of the ISO 14000 process. It is also in the best interests of companies as it costs less than invasive regulation. Since awareness about environmental matters is growing, environmental labeling can improve market share. Products with comprehensive information about environmental impacts on their labels will perform better in highly competitive situations. There is the analogy of air emissions as a buying benefit in the case of automobiles. Clothing made from organic fiber, food free of harmful residues, cosmetics that do not use animal testing, durables that consumers can return to manufacturers for recycling and instructions on how to use dangerous products without causing harm, are all live examples of some of the most successful branding that has been achieved through environmental labeling. This portion of the ISO 14000 package is instrumental in building unbreakable bonds between brand owners and customers, and in improving customer satisfaction. It is therefore a pivotal strategy for profitable and sustainable business growth. ISO 14001 for International Corporations Since environmental standards and concern vary by country, international corporations face dilemmas with respect to environmental management systems. Most of these companies are headquartered and controlled in the first world, though their products, services and operations cover far corners of the globe. Such companies used to follow territory-specific environmental management systems in the past. This has some technical validity, as natural resources, climate and social habits can place such different demands on business. However, social activists have begun to question the ethics of double standards. International companies have become accountable for following uniform policies and standards wherever they may operate. This can be quite confusing as regulatory requirements are not uniform throughout the world. ISO 14001 offers a path out of these contradictions. Group Managements can influence policy statements and control systems, leaving affiliates and subsidiaries to identify aspects, programs and specifications. Audits and reviews provide a uniform basis for transnational comparisons. Certification is a strong defense against unsubstantiated attacks by social activists. Overall, ISO 14001 offers value to organizations that need to harmonize international and local components of environmental management systems. The portability of human resources is a key consideration for international companies. Assignments and transfers to new locations are established means of career development. New perspectives of individuals from exotic markets, often inject new dynamism in to stagnating business sectors. Periodic changes in fitment for key positions ensure transparency and integrity of linkages between companies and its independent suppliers and contractors. There are therefore a host of reasons for international companies to move personnel between countries, markets and sectors. However, continuity of important business processes becomes a concern, as new people occupy crucial positions at various points of the organization. The accumulated learning of an individual, as well as the rationale for pivotal decisions, has to be available for a new incumbent. The environmental aspects of management situations can be too important and irreversible in nature for companies to depend on word-of-mouth spread between colleagues about the reasons for how operations are conducted. Casual or experimental changes in processes based on theoretical concepts, or based on notions from irrelevant past experience, can be devastating in environmental terms. The ISO 14001 system plays a most helpful role in such matters. Versions of the manual built up over time serve as invaluable references in managing the evolution of all business processes. Records of management reviews lend authenticity to how things are done in each function and location. Since ISO 14001 is an on-going process, it also allows adequate scope for new incumbents in local organizations to express themselves fully, and to expound their ideas for business improvement. The ISO 14000 series is therefore an enabling network for large and inter-changeable teams of professionals to work in a seamless way. Environmental concerns are important for modern branding and new product development processes. Though branding and new product development should be globally uniform for the best returns on investment, environmental aspects can vary across countries, and even within segments of domestic markets. There can therefore be an inherent conflict between marketing and environmental concerns. The ISO 14001 system offers a way to resolve such conflicts. The policy statement serves to establish universal ground rules within which innovation can be encouraged. The choice of environmental aspects that are chosen for address in individual countries can be adapted to meet local requirements. ISO 14001 helps to define the boundaries between local and global environmental management concerns related to brands and new product development. Group managements of international corporations have to make choices between territories and industrial sectors for resource allocation, especially in terms of financial deployment. Since most projects have long gestation periods, and may involve very substantial commitments, managers at one central location can always have difficulties in making choices between alternatives at more than one remote location. Local environmental concerns tend to be in flux and there are often crucial differences between the regulatory conditions related to environmental management systems of various countries. Group managements may have to take important decisions in the face of incomplete and uncertain background information. Countries with less transparent and elaborate environmental regulations may either fall by the wayside in investment choices, or at the other extreme, attract funds for new projects without due consideration for the risks involved. ISO 14001 makes it possible to compare opportunities and threats across nations in a fair and even way. Records of progressive audits provide a firm and equal basis to take decisions on the future of operations in various territories. This is apart from serving as a common platform for the evaluation of business performance. Social activism tends to concentrate on large international corporations. Environmental degradation due to poverty, ignorance and by SMEs is often overlooked by non-governmental organizations. Such attacks can occupy limited management time and lead to intractable and unproductive negotiations. An ISO 14001 certification is an effective safeguard in such circumstances. It provides a harmonious platform for divergent views to be addressed, and a participatory format for conflict resolution. Records of management reviews can form crucial evidence in defense of executive action and environmental responsibility. The advantages of the ISO 14000 system for large international corporations are so obvious and pervasive, that one can conclude that all such organizations do have EMSs in place, though they may not always seek certification. It is difficult to conceive of a body conducting business in a sustained way across the globe without any systems for environmental management. The external audit and public scrutiny of the ISO 14000 series is what most management teams would want to avoid. It is possible to conclude that most if not all large international corporations follow ISO 14000 systems in some form, though they may not find it expedient to join the organization in a formal sense. ISO 14001 in Mergers and Acquisitions. Differences in environmental management systems can confound and delay mergers and acquisitions. Potential buyers may be put off by uncertainties about product liability. Due diligence can be affected by paucity of documentation, and by contradictory verbal feedback from employees and other stakeholders. The entire ISO 14000 series is a way out of such problems. ISO processes serve to assure all parties about the integrity of environmental impact assessments, while successive editions of the manual and audit reports put achievements and progress in valid and measured perspectives. Companies that follow ISO 14001 will find it relatively easy to continue business normally very soon after a merger or an acquisition. There could be major disruptions or unpleasant surprises if an inter-corporate transaction involves an unregistered entity. ISO 14001 also protects minority and dissenting interests in mergers and acquisitions. Stock market regulators are well advised to insist on ISO registration as a pre-condition to equity restructuring. The case of batteries illustrates how tangential product components can have significant impact on the core strategies of a business. Computers use batteries inevitably, but the technology of their production lies outside the domain of electronics and software. However, ecological concerns about the use of heavy metals such as lead, nickel and cadmium in batteries, and the relatively high rate of product obsolescence in computers, has forced companies in this field to acquire expertise in technologies such as that of lithium ions, and to find sources for commercial supplies of ecologically sound batteries. Computer companies have also to divert major resources to recycling programs that are integral to their products, but the matter of batteries illustrates the inter-related complications that can be part of doing business in the 21st century. This aspect gives Life Cycle Analysis great value, as it is a systematic way to cover all known environmental impacts that arise as a result of any enterprise. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) seeks to cover all sources of burdens on the environment that the production of a product may entail (Hanson, A.J. not dated). The system covers the consumption of all materials, use of energy in all forms, production processes, supply chains, logistics, waste disposal and recycling. LCA adopts an integrated approach to environmental management, and it works in four stages. Initiation, inventory analysis, impact analysis and interpretation are the four stages of LCA. Interpretation is also called improvement analysis. LCA is a vital part of the ISO 14000 system, and it has universal application for all fields of human endeavor. LCA has most utility when designing new products, but the technique can also be used to reduce the environmental burden of an existing product. Substitutes may compete on the basis of LCA facts, as is the case of disposable diapers versus washable ones. Such comparisons engage healthy debate and help to build indelible opinions about environmental conservation. LCA is integrative and holistic in its approach to environmental concerns. It is especially useful in uncovering hidden risks and costs that may associate in covert manner with some products and services. LCA proceeds in a step-wise manner, toting up the material and energy requirements of each component of a production process, and then presenting a total picture of the environmental impact of each product or service that is covered. LCA considers waste generations and impacts on air and water at each stage of procurement and production. It also considers distribution and actual use. The ISO 14001 process cannot be complete without full LCA. The Canadian Standards Association has stated LCA benefits in the follo.